遗址资源域分析(Site Catchment Analysis)已被广泛应用于对史前经济和人类行为模式的研究中，有别于西方普遍采用的“遗址外”(off-site)研究模式，本文提倡一种以“遗址内”(on-site)为核心的研究方法。主要通过遗址所见大植物遗存，结合古环境研究成果，模拟复原当时的植被分布，进而讨论遗址资源域及其反映的生业经济特点。第一个案例是长江下游的田螺山遗址，属于河姆渡文化（6900～6500cal.aB.P.），分析表明: 早期的水稻栽培活动是长期伴生于采集经济模式中的； 当时的采集经济具有广域性、专门性、季节性和强调储存性等特点； 这一时期聚落的选址会优先考虑生态环境的多样性，在步行一天的活动半径便可获得大部分植物资源，但也有一些资源分布于12小时半径之外，必须短期露营（可能与狩猎同时进行）方可获取。第二个案例是中原地区的颍河上游，分析以袁桥遗址为中心的仰韶文化聚落（6000cal.aB.P.）: 尽管 2～3 小时的步行范围内就有条件获取各类野生植物资源，仰韶文化时期的生业活动已经集中在更小空间范围内的作物栽培上。遗址资源域缩小、对小范围景观进行改造、聚落间产生土地分配和资源共享等社会关系问题——这些构成了农业聚落资源域的一般特点。比较两个案例，农业聚落的产生可以看作是一种景观环境上发生的变化。遗址资源域分析为我们提供了一个新的视角来理解早期农业社会的产生、发展及不同生业社会与周边景观的互动关系。
SCA(Site Catchment Analysis)has been widely used in studies of prehistoric economy and human behavior. This paper developments an empirical onsite perspective，rather than the deductive offsite approach，to investigate the plant resource catchments of two sites in different contexts. The first case is Tianluoshan site，a Hemudu culture settlement(6900～6500cal.aBP.)located in the lower Yangtze region. Our study shows that early rice cultivation was developed alongside gathering activities for an extended period； a spatially wide but specialized，pattern of seasonal gathering for storage is the main characteristic of this subsistence system. Site location may reflect a strategy to obtain a wide variety of resources，because most of plant food resources could be obtained within a oneday catchment. However，some may have been further away than a 12 hours walking distance，in which case shortstay camping must have been involved，which would also have allowed further hunting. The second case considers Yangshao culture settlements(6000cal.aB.P.)along the upper Ying river valley in the central plain of China，with Yuanqiao site as the focus. Although there would have been various wild food resources within a two or three hours walk catchment，Yuanqiao site has a much more focused and spatially narrow use of its landscape. The shrinking of site resource catchments，the modification of surrounding landscape and the new settlement relationships in terms of land use and resource sharing with other sites，are all characteristics that can be associated with a typically agricultural settlement. Based on these two case studies，we can suggest that agriculture represents a change in landscape and how it was used rather than simply the presence or absence of domesticated plant remains. SCA provides a new approach to understanding the emergence and development of agricultural societies and the interaction of communities，whether agricultural or not，with their surrounding landscape.