侯家窑遗址是旧石器中期重要的考古文化遗址, 然而对侯家窑古人类的生存年代及生存环境至今尚存争议。本文通过野外地质观测、地磁测量和电阻率测深等工作以及动植物研究资料分析, 对遗址区地质地貌环境, 尤其是与古人类生存密切相关的古河流发育情况进行了系统研究。结果表明:1)在侯家窑遗址区发育一条NNW-SSE向的古河流, 它形成于224ka B.P.前的泥河湾古湖泊大规模萎缩阶段, 直至被晚更新世冲洪积物掩埋后才结束发育历史。2)侯家窑遗址古人类文化遗存埋藏于古河流截弯取直遗留的牛轭湖沉积层及不整合覆于其上的壤化粘土层中, 时限为距今约224~161ka, 即侯家窑古人类在此地生活达6万年之久。3)牛轭湖区不仅适宜多种植物生长, 而且水流缓滞、清澈, 是各类动物优先选择食物和饮水的地方。古人类在这里使用石球围猎, 较之在其他地带成功率高。4)侯家窑古人类生存时期, 气候寒冷, 但这里的地形呈面向东南的宽阔圈椅状, 光照条件良好, 气候温和, 其间又有河流穿过, 生态环境相对优越, 动植物资源较为丰富; 而且遗址附近优质石器原料遍布, 许多石料在河谷中即可寻到, 方便石器制作。因此, 对于旧石器时代以狩猎和采集为主要生活方式的古人类来讲, 在寒冷的区域气候背景下, 选择生存环境较好的侯家窑遗址区倚河而居势成必然。
Lying in the northwest part of Nihewan Basin, about 500m southwest of Houjiayao Village in Yangyuan County, Hebei Province, the Houjiayao Site(40°06'02.00"N, 113°58'40.07"E) is one of the most important Mid-Paleolithic archaeological sites in China.However, since the site was discovered in 1974, there is still a controversy about the existence age and the living environment of Houjiayao ancient hunman.In order to get a clear understanding of these controversial issues, this paper does a systematically research on the ancient geological-geomorphological environment, especially the development situations of the ancient river, which was closely related to the ancient human beings near the Houjiayao Site, by carrying out geological investigations, geomagnetic measurements and electrical resistivity sounding.The results are as follows:(1)There exits an ancient river near the Houjiayao Site, which stretched in direction of NNW-SSE, and it appeared about 224ka years ago when the Nihewan Ancient Lake was shrinking sharply.It was not disappeared until it was buried by the alluvial sediments in the Late Pleistocene.(2)The ancient cultural relics of the Houjiayao Site were buried in the oxbow lake sediments of the ancient river and clay layer which overlies on the oxbow lake sediments unconformably during the period of 224~161ka B.P.namely, the Houjiayao ancient people lived here as long as 60ka years.(3)The oxbow lake area is a preferred place for all kinds of animal to get food and water, because it's not only suitable for a variety of plant growth, but also the water is slow and clear.And the geomorphological characteristics of oxbow made the ancient human catching animals easily but the animals hard to escape, therefore the success rate of ancient human hunting used stone spheres in the oxbow is higher than in other areas.(4)It was cold when Houjiayao ancient people lived here.Although the site was far from the residual Nihewan Ancient Lake, the landform looks like a wide armchair faced to southeast, sunny and mild.On the land beside the river, there were plentiful plants and animals, and the eco-environment was superior.In addition, there existed massive quality stones near the site, which could be made into stoneware.The Houjiayao ancient people could get food easily by using stone tools.As a result, for the Houjiayao ancient people who lived by hunting and gathering in the Palaeolithic age, it is necessary that they were more likely to choose better habitats such as the Houjiayao Site near the ancient river in very cold conditions.