The analysis of bone surface modifications is currently a major technique of taphonomic studies of the faunal remains from the Paleolithic sites. In addition to human-induced bone surface modifications,such as cut marks,percussion marks,and burning,there are generally non-human alterations observed on animal bones from the Paleolithic sites in China. However,although of particular significance,archaeologists have surprisingly seldom addressed the importance of the identifications of these naturally derived marks on bones. In this paper,certain categories of taphonomic imprints left on the faunal remains by nonhuman agents are outlined,underlying mechanisms,differential characteristics,distributional patterns and case studies for these bone modifications are also discussed,and archeological significance of these observations to the Chinese Paleolithic is also briefly mentioned by the author. Among the nonhuman surface modifications observed on animal bones from the archaeological sites,carnivore tooth marks such as pits,punctures,scores and furrows are well-known to archaeologists,and a taphonomic study of the faunal assemblage from the Lingjing site shows that 5.4%of the bone fragments bearing tooth marks,which strongly indicates a weak role played by carnivores in the accumulations and modification of these bones. Some species of rodents may accumulate and gnaw on animal bones to wear away their ever-growing incisors and consequently induce some kinds of characteristic signatures on these bones. A percentage of about 5%~6%of animal bones from the Longyadong site have gnawing marks,suggesting of a minor role played by rodents in the accumulations of this bone assemblage. Sedimentary particles carried on by flowing water may abrade bones and impart some randomly distributed striations on their surfaces. A certain proportion of bone fragments from the Xujiayao site at Nihewan basin bear this kind of modifications,which says to some extent a complicated depositional history for this faunal assemblage. Trampling by large or middle-sized animals of bone fragments lying on the ground or within sand can sometimes impart some fine and densely distributed striations. This special taphonomic process is well documented in faunal remains from the Lingjing site and indicates an amiable environ for these animals at this site,which is in good accordance with other lines of paleontological and taphonomic evidences. Acids excreted by plant roots or fungi could etch into bone surfaces and leave thin,shallow linear striations of various width and length. This kind of taphonomic signature is well preserved on some bones from the Ma'anshan site of Guizhou Province,although of a high percentage,these surface marks are generally confined to the outermost layer of the bone laminar and therefore have little negative effects on the sound interpretation of this faunal assemblage. Various stages of weathering of bones could be documented among faunal remains from the archaeological sites,in nature,there are resulted from a combination of physical and chemical processes and the effects are progressively cracking,splitting,exfoliation,disintegration,and finally decomposition. A comparative study of the weathering of the animal bones from the Lower Recess and the Lower Chamber of the Upper Cave lends support to different archaeological interpretations for these stratigraphic units. To sum up,although non-human surface modifications to animal bones are still poorly appreciated by scholars in China,their archaeological significance cant be underestimated by all means,to fully understand taphonomic histories of archaeological sites,we should instead make great efforts to documents these non-human surface modifications along with human marks on animal remains.