青藏高原东北部牧羊业的民族学观察及其动物考古学启示

王一如, 久雪加, 侯光良, Greame BARKER. 青藏高原东北部牧羊业的民族学观察及其动物考古学启示[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 288-299. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.24
引用本文: 王一如, 久雪加, 侯光良, Greame BARKER. 青藏高原东北部牧羊业的民族学观察及其动物考古学启示[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 288-299. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.24
王一如, 久雪加, 侯光良, Greame BARKER. 青藏高原东北部牧羊业的民族学观察及其动物考古学启示[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 288-299. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.24 WANG Yiru, JIU Xuejia, HOU Guangliang, Graeme BARKER. An ethnographic observation of sheep husbandry in northeast Tibetan Plateau and its zooarchaeological implications[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2023, 43(1): 288-299. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.24
Citation: WANG Yiru, JIU Xuejia, HOU Guangliang, Graeme BARKER. An ethnographic observation of sheep husbandry in northeast Tibetan Plateau and its zooarchaeological implications[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2023, 43(1): 288-299. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.24

青藏高原东北部牧羊业的民族学观察及其动物考古学启示

  • 基金项目:

    剑桥大学海外基金会项目(批准号: 10164541)、中国国家留学基金项目(批准号: 20106013)、美国温那葛林学位论文田野基金项目、英中教育信托基金项目、达尔文学院桑坦德基金项目和国家自然科学基金项目(批准号: 41930323)共同资助

详细信息
    通讯作者: 王一如, 女, 34岁, 博士后, 动物考古研究, E-mail: yiru.wang@nju.edu.cn
  • 中图分类号: Q988

An ethnographic observation of sheep husbandry in northeast Tibetan Plateau and its zooarchaeological implications

More Information
  • 学术界目前已经普遍认识到, 牧羊业是在史前从西亚传入中国的, 青藏高原东北部则被认为有可能是最早接受这些外来物种的区域。然而, 青藏高原大部分地区为特殊的高海拔环境, 气候条件相对恶劣。绵羊是如何传入并适应青藏高原, 及早期的绵羊传入对人类的生活起到了怎样的作用等问题仍然不甚清楚。本研究通过田野调查和访谈的方式, 对青藏高原东北部5个县共10户的牧羊业情况进行了民族学考查。通过这些研究, 发现了青藏高原东北部多样的绵羊品系及其来源、各自的生理特点、适应的不同生态环境及相关的繁殖和蓄养方式。结合调查得到的结果和相关的动物考古学及分子生物学证据发现, 早期绵羊在传入青藏高原高海拔环境的过程中, 需要经历一系列充满挑战性的、对新生态环境适应的过程。因此推测: 人类有意识的将绵羊与本地野生盘羊杂交以得到对高海拔环境的生态适应在这一过程中很可能起到了关键性的作用, 但是具体情况仍需更多动物考古和古DNA研究。本调查所发现的羊群饲养策略对通过动物考古、稳定同位素和古DNA方法研究史前牧羊业有启示、参考和类比作用, 并为今后研究史前牧羊业的跨大陆传播提出应该关注的方向。

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  • 图 1 

    青藏高原东北部牧羊业遗址调查点

    Figure 1. 

    Investigated sites of sheep-husbandry in northeastern Tibetan Plateau

    图 2 

    调查区内的典型羊品种

    Figure 2. 

    Typical sheep breeds in the investigated areas.

    图 3 

    金禅口村及周边2013年8月份的场景

    Figure 3. 

    The view of Jinchankou Village and its surroundings in August 2013.

    图 4 

    海晏县农牧结合带2013年8月份的场景

    Figure 4. 

    Scene of the agro-pastoral combination zone in Haiyan County, August 2013.

    图 5 

    祁连牧区2013年8月份的场景

    Figure 5. 

    The scene of pastoral zone in Qilian Mountains, August 2013.

    图 6 

    一只来自新疆的盘羊和家养羊的杂交后代(右) 与一只欧拉羊(左),青海河南蒙古族自治县

    Figure 6. 

    A hybrid offspring of an argali from Xinjiang and a domestic sheep (right) and an Oula sheep(left), Henan Mongol Autonomous County, Qinghai Province

    表 1 

    调查区域典型羊的品种和特点

    Table 1. 

    Breeds and characteristics of typical sheep breeds in the investigated areas

    品种 来源 生态适应 养殖区 生理特点 体态 食物 种群特点 用途
    藏系羊 青海、西藏 适应寒冷、高海拔山地地区,不适应新疆和内地 化隆回族自治县、互助土族自治县、海晏县、祁连县、河南蒙古族自治县 灵活、好动、跑得快、跳得高,会自动脱毛,不需要太多照料;一年1次交配和繁殖;适应3500~5000m海拔 65~100kg,成年雄性有大而卷曲的角,有粗、短且中空的毛,部分品种肌肉比例大 食草为主,仅冬季吃部分饲料 雄性比例4%~15% 毛长,可织毛毯,运输,适应高寒,耐粗放
    半细毛羊 青海 对高寒环境条件具有良好的适应性,适应饲养管理条件 海西蒙古族自治州、海南藏族自治州、海北藏族自治州 介于藏系羊和细毛羊之间,适应2700~4300m海拔 40~80kg四肢粗短结实,体躯深圆,臀部丰满,公、母羊无角或有不发达的小角 食草并可进食饲料 11月初配种,次年4月产1~2羔 产肉、产毛性能均较藏系羊更好
    细毛羊 新疆 适应较温暖的气温,海拔较低的草原 化隆回族自治县 不爱动,吃得多;体弱,需要很多人工照料;一年1~2次交配和繁殖;适应2500m以下海拔 30~70kg,雄性有较小的角或者无角,体脂率高 可进食大量饲料 雄性比例0.2% 非常高质量的羊毛和羊肉
    寒羊 中原、山东 适应温暖气候和低海拔和舍饲 化隆回族自治县 不爱动,吃得多;体弱,需要很多人工照料;一年2~3次交配;适应2500m以下海拔 30~70kg,雄性有较小的角或者无角,体脂率高 可进食大量饲料 雄性比例0.2% 皮和肉
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2 

    青海省东北部牧羊业民族学调查情况统计

    Table 2. 

    Statistics on the ethnographic survey of sheep-husbandry in northeast Qinghai Province

    编号 地点 调查对象 海拔(m a. s. l.) 羊群品种及其他家畜 种群规模 食物 管理、交配和繁殖 屠宰、阉割、用途
    A 化隆回族自治县群科镇,安达其哈村 小农户 约2030 均为绵羊,包括本地羊、杂交羊、藏系羊、细毛羊、寒羊 类似农户每家2~20只 人为提供的饲料包括小麦秸秆、麸皮、干草、有时候混以面粉;山上放牧时吃新鲜青草 主要圈养在屋后,夏季的白天放到山上吃草 一般不主动屠宰
    B 化隆回族自治县群科镇,宏村 养殖大户(村长) 约2050 >100只 夏季雇一人到山羊放羊,放羊人夜间搭一帐篷为临时住所,每年8月赶羊群回家,秋季和冬季把羊圈养在专门搭建的房子里,喂以饲料 雄性一般在2岁屠宰,雌性保留。保留4%~5%为雄性,其他雄性在4~5月时阉割,没有特别固定的屠宰季节
    C 互助土族自治县,金禅口村 小农户 约2900 均为绵羊,本地羊;也养殖山羊 类似农户每家10只左右 只吃草,不吃饲料 夏季放羊到山上,冬季圈养在家,吃人提供的草,每年产仔一次,每次一胎,6~7月交配 雌雄比例平均,并不主动屠宰吃羊肉,只用羊毛,有时候卖掉成年的1~2只,不卖小羊羔
    D 回族小农户 均为绵羊,本地羊 目前共46只 冬季吃小麦秸秆,夏季放牧吃草 冬季圈养,夏季放山上,6~7月交配,5个月后,即11~12月产仔 15%是雄性的,用于吃羊肉,也卖掉获取收入
    E 海晏县 专业牧民 约3200 藏系羊、半细毛羊 藏系羊主要吃草,冬季目前也加以饲料;半细毛羊主要吃饲料 夏季放山上,随行牧人会搭建临时帐篷,冬季把羊养在砖房里 没有固定的屠宰季节,一年可多次屠宰
    F 海北藏族自治州的牧区(祁连县、刚察县) 曾经的牧民 约3500 富裕的一家会养殖2000~3000只羊,1000头牛 每年5~6月份给羊剪羊毛,母羊2岁时即可交配,每年春季和秋季产仔;每家根据自己拥有的草场面积大小和质量来发展牲畜 用来吃肉的羊一般1~2岁屠宰,牛在4~5岁屠宰,屠宰季节通常在11月份,老年和生病的牲畜会被处理;肉可以自己吃或卖,但通常作为自己家的资产进行发展;一般一家人一年只宰7~9只羊和1~2头牛用来自己吃;黄牛、牦牛都可以产牛奶
    G 祁连县,牛心山 老年牧民 约3700 所有羊种均为只有藏系绵羊,寒羊和肥尾羊不适应 100多只绵羊 主要以吃草为主,冬季会喂以少量饲料,但不多 夏季在山上放羊,冬季在家;夏季交配,冬季产仔 雄性大多在2~3月阉割,100只羊中,约有一半是雌性,剩下当中有4~5只是公羊,其余均是阉割的和母羊
    H 祁连县,大东树山 藏族牧民 约4122 500只绵羊,30头牦牛
    I 河南蒙古族自治县,蒙旗草原 曾经的牧民 约3600~5000 欧拉羊,佳罗羊 以吃草为主 如果某年的草不够好,则佳罗羊只会在五月产一胎,如果草长得好,羊可以一年产两胎,第二胎在6~7月,每胎一仔 一群中4%~16%为雄性
    J 河南蒙古簇自治县 专业牧民 600只羊,200匹马
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
收稿日期:  2022-03-20
修回日期:  2022-08-23
刊出日期:  2023-01-30

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