广西独山洞遗址新发现赭石分析研究

李大伟, 张尚欣, 王伟, 王朝文, 殷科, 廖卫, 任晓磊. 广西独山洞遗址新发现赭石分析研究[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 280-287. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.23
引用本文: 李大伟, 张尚欣, 王伟, 王朝文, 殷科, 廖卫, 任晓磊. 广西独山洞遗址新发现赭石分析研究[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 280-287. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.23
李大伟, 张尚欣, 王伟, 王朝文, 殷科, 廖卫, 任晓磊. 广西独山洞遗址新发现赭石分析研究[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 280-287. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.23 LI Daweil, ZHANG Shangxin, WANG Wei, WANG Chaowent, YIN Ke, LIAO Wei, REN Xiaolei. Scientific and technological analysis of newly discovered ochre from Dushan cave site in Guangxi[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2023, 43(1): 280-287. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.23
Citation: LI Daweil, ZHANG Shangxin, WANG Wei, WANG Chaowent, YIN Ke, LIAO Wei, REN Xiaolei. Scientific and technological analysis of newly discovered ochre from Dushan cave site in Guangxi[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2023, 43(1): 280-287. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.23

广西独山洞遗址新发现赭石分析研究

  • 基金项目:

    广西自然科学基金面上项目(批准号: 2021GXNSFAA196010)、广西民族大学相思湖青年学者创新团队项目(批准号: 2020RSCXSHQN07)和广西高等学校千名中青年骨干教师培养计划项目(批准号: 2022QGRW023)共同资助

详细信息
    作者简介:

    李大伟, 男, 38岁, 副研究员/博士, 科技考古研究, E-mail: dwei.li@163.com

    通讯作者: 张尚欣, E-mail: zhangshangxin@126.com
  • 中图分类号: P595;Q988

Scientific and technological analysis of newly discovered ochre from Dushan cave site in Guangxi

More Information
  • 为更好了解中国区域更新世晚期现代人行为, 本研究对广西独山洞遗址更新世晚期新发现的赭石样品进行报道, 并结合科技考古分析进行综合分析。广西独山洞遗址属于更新世晚期向全新世过渡阶段考古遗址, 赭石出土层位AMS碳十四测年结果显示其埋藏距今约1.5万年。X射线荧光(XRF)分析结果显示赭石样品化学元素组成中铁和硅的含量较高, 赭石样品成分中均含铁; X射线衍射(XRD)分析结果显示赭石样品包含石英、绿泥石、伊利石、高岭石、赤铁矿; 偏光显微分析结果显示, 赭石样品均由红色的颗粒混合而成, 单偏光下呈暗红色, 边缘圆润; 在正交偏光下全消光, 显示所有赭石样品中红色部分为含赤铁矿的多晶质集合体; 拉曼光谱分析结果显示, 样品红色区域峰值与赤铁矿拉曼峰值较为匹配, 主要在223cm-1、295cm-1、408cm-1和605cm-1有特征吸收峰, 表明赭石中含有赤铁矿。独山洞遗址新发现的赭石研究, 表明独山洞遗址古人类已具有现代人行为特征; 该遗址赭石科技考古分析数据, 为不同地区现代人行为相互比较提供了科学数据。

  • 加载中
  • 图 1 

    独山洞遗址出土的赭石

    Figure 1. 

    Ochres unearthed in the Dushan cave site

    图 2 

    偏光显微分析

    Figure 2. 

    Polarized Light Microscope analysis

    图 3 

    样品拉曼光谱图谱

    Figure 3. 

    Raman spectra analysis

    表 1 

    中国区域发现赭石的旧石器考古遗址

    Table 1. 

    Chinese Palaeolithic archaeological sites associated with ochre

    遗址 出土形态 出土详情 距今年代(万年) 来源
    灵井遗址 最终使用状态 刻划骨片凹槽中有赭石粉 12.5~10.5 文献[13]
    鸽子山遗址 最终使用状态 鹿牙装饰品表面涂有赭石粉 1.3~1.2 文献[14]
    虎头梁遗址 原料 火堆旁发现赭石原料 1.3 文献[15]
    东方广场遗址 加工状态 火堆旁发现赭石粉和赭石碎块、石锤;石砧和动物骨头上附有赭石粉 2.4 文献[16]
    白莲洞遗址 加工状态 研磨器表面附有赭石粉 2.0~1.2 文献[17]
    小孤山遗址 最终使用状态 贝壳装饰品刻沟上残留赭石粉 3.5~3.1 文献[18]
    水洞沟遗址 最终使用状态 鸵鸟蛋片串珠上染有赭石粉 3.2 文献[19]
    山顶洞遗址 最终使用形态 陪葬小砾石孔壁上、穿孔牙齿和石珠上用赭石粉染色、石灰岩砾石上有赭石粉染色痕迹、头骨上的砂质粘土含有赭石粉 3.7~3.5 文献[20]
    东胡林遗址 最终使用状态 研磨赭石粉的研磨器、使用过的赭石 1.1~0.9 文献[21]
    下川遗址 原料,加工状态 赭石原料、有打击痕迹的赭石、石磨盘上附有赭石粉 2.4~1.6 文献[22~24]
    柿子滩遗址 原料,加工状态、最终使用形态 赭石原料、石磨盘表面残留赭石粉、赭石表面有反复摩擦的痕迹、装饰品钻孔内赭石粉 2.4~1.0 文献[25~27]
    下马碑遗址 加工状态 赭石表面有反复摩擦的痕迹 4.0 文献[28]
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2 

    赭石样品信息表

    Table 2. 

    Ochres Samples information

    数量 发掘编号 实验室编号 层位 层位年代(万年)
    1 10TD11:110 LDW2 第三层 约1.5
    2 10TD11:112 LDW3 第三层 约1.5
    3 10TD11:111 LDW4 第三层 约1.5
    4 10TD11:113 LDW5 第三层 约1.5
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3 

    X射线荧光分析结果

    Table 3. 

    Results of EDX analysis

    发掘编号 实验室编号 Fe Si Al Ca Ti Mn K
    10TD11:110 LDW2 19.3 53.3 13.6 1.7 1.8 0.2 9.8
    10TD11:112 LDW3 24.8 49.6 10.4 1.4 2.0 0.6 10.6
    10TD11:111 LDW4 30.5 44.0 10.5 1.3 2.5 0.9 8.7
    10TD11:113 LDW5 29.2 43.7 13.2 1.9 2.1 0.3 8.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 4 

    X射线衍射分析结果

    Table 4. 

    Results of XRD Analysis

    发掘编号 实验室编号 矿物成分
    10TD11:110 0506z01 石英(SiO2)、绿泥石((Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4)、伊利石((K,H3 O)Al2 Si3 Al)、赤铁矿(Fe2O3)
    10TD11:111 0506z02 石英(SiO2)、绿泥石((Mg,Al)6(Si,Al)4)、高岭石(Al2 Si2 O5(OH)4)、赤铁矿(Fe2O3)
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
收稿日期:  2020-03-02
修回日期:  2020-09-07
刊出日期:  2023-01-30

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