鲁中北寿光机械林场遗址的环境与盐业生产活动——炭化植物遗存分析

刘洋, 王子孟, 李雨芹, 胡栩瑞, 陈雪香. 鲁中北寿光机械林场遗址的环境与盐业生产活动——炭化植物遗存分析[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 266-279. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.22
引用本文: 刘洋, 王子孟, 李雨芹, 胡栩瑞, 陈雪香. 鲁中北寿光机械林场遗址的环境与盐业生产活动——炭化植物遗存分析[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 266-279. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.22
刘洋, 王子孟, 李雨芹, 胡栩瑞, 陈雪香. 鲁中北寿光机械林场遗址的环境与盐业生产活动——炭化植物遗存分析[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 266-279. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.22 LIU Yang, WANG Zimeng, LI Yuqin, HU Xurui, CHEN Xuexiang. Stress of the population from the Northern Dynasties to the Sui and Tang Dynasties at Xujiacun site in Gaoqing County, Shandong Province: Analysis of the charred plant remains[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2023, 43(1): 266-279. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.22
Citation: LIU Yang, WANG Zimeng, LI Yuqin, HU Xurui, CHEN Xuexiang. Stress of the population from the Northern Dynasties to the Sui and Tang Dynasties at Xujiacun site in Gaoqing County, Shandong Province: Analysis of the charred plant remains[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2023, 43(1): 266-279. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.22

鲁中北寿光机械林场遗址的环境与盐业生产活动——炭化植物遗存分析

  • 基金项目:

    国家重点研发计划项目(批准号: 2022YFF0903500)、国家社会科学基金重大项目(批准号: 19ZDA229)和山东省艺术科学重点基金项目(批准号: 21ZB06160002)共同资助

详细信息

Stress of the population from the Northern Dynasties to the Sui and Tang Dynasties at Xujiacun site in Gaoqing County, Shandong Province: Analysis of the charred plant remains

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  • 渤海南岸的莱州湾滩地是中国古代重要的产盐区, 分布有众多盐业遗址。其中, 山东寿光机械林场遗址是一处东周和宋元时期的盐业遗址, 分布有盐灶、盐井和灰坑等遗迹单位。炭化遗存分析结果显示, 遗址中农作物种子的数量较少, 杂草的种类及数量较为丰富, 以藜科、菊科、禾本科、茨藻科为主, 并且发现了数量较多的草本植物茎秆, 植物比例显示出偏向自然生长的状态, 可能与放荒发展草荡以供燃料有关。寿光机械林场在东周时期处于滨海盐生草甸植被分布区, 气候较为温和干旱, 至宋元时期湿地植物增加。土壤盐碱化的环境特征并不适合发展农业, 遗址多为煮盐作坊区, 与生活区间可能隔有一定距离, 或与官府对盐业的管控有关。先民在煮盐时就地取材, 利用周边杂草作为燃料, 煮盐集中在秋末、冬季, 遗址可能存在季节性利用的特征。有关盐业遗址的炭化植物遗存的研究相对较少, 寿光机械林场遗址炭化遗存分析结果可以为研究煮盐燃料及莱州湾滩地盐业作坊区周边的环境与植物类型提供一些线索。

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  • 图 1 

    寿光机械林场遗址及本文涉及的其他遗址位置图

    Figure 1. 

    Geographical location of Jixielinchang site in Shouguang City and other sites involved in this paper

    图 2 

    寿光机械林场遗址出土炭化种子遗存(比例尺:1mm)

    Figure 2. 

    Charred seeds remains from Jixielinchang site in Shouguang City(scale: 1mm)

    图 3 

    寿光机械林场遗址各时期炭化植物种子数量百分比条形图(%)

    Figure 3. 

    The percentage of charred seeds in each period from Jixielinchang site in Shouguang City(%).

    图 4 

    寿光机械林场遗址东周时期和宋元时期农作物与非农作物炭化种子数量百分比(%)

    Figure 4. 

    Comparison of the percentage of charred seeds of crops and non-crops in Eastern-Zhou Dynasty and Song-Yuan period from Jixielinchang site in Shouguang City(%). Number of remains units in each period: In Eastern-Zhou Dynasty N=22; In Song-Yuan period N=15; In total N=37

    图 5 

    寿光机械林场遗址与阚家寨遗址[25]战国时期炭化植物数量百分比对比图(%)

    Figure 5. 

    Comparison of the quantity ratio of charred seeds between Jixielinchang site in Shouguang City and Kanjiazhai site[25] in Warring States Period(%)

    图 6 

    各遗迹单位出土炭化种子标准密度对比图(粒/L)

    Figure 6. 

    Comparison of the standard density of charred seeds from different units(grains/L)

    图 7 

    寿光机械林场出土炭屑(比例尺:1mm)

    Figure 7. 

    Charcoal excavated from Jixielinchang site in Shouguang City(scale: 1mm)

    表 1 

    寿光机械林场遗址不同遗迹单位浮选量与样品数量统计表

    Table 1. 

    Statistics of flotation volume and sample number of different units at the Jixielinchang site in Shouguang City

    遗迹单位数量(个) 浮选样品数量(个) 土样量(L) 样品体积比例(%)
    灰坑 32 52 332 75.46
    盐灶 4 14 101 22.95
    盐井 1 1 7 1.59
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2 

    寿光机械林场遗址出土炭屑遗存平均密度统计表(g/L)

    Table 2. 

    Statistics of average density of charcoal remains from Jixielinchang site in Shouguang City(g/L)

    东周时期 宋元时期 总计
    灰坑 0.022 0.020 0.021
    盐灶 0.016 0.020 0.017
    盐井 0.656 \ 0.656
    总计 0.035 0.020 0.030
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3 

    寿光机械林场遗址出土炭化植物遗存数量统计表(粒)

    Table 3. 

    Statistics on the number of charred plant remains from Jixielinchang site in Shouguang City(grain)

    名称 东周时期 宋元时期 总计 分类总数
    土样 土样量(L) 311 129 440
    炭屑 炭屑重(g)(>1mm) 10.789 2.593 13.382
    农作物Cultivated Plants 粟(Setaria italica Beauv.) 25 20 45 74
    黍(Panicum miliaceum L.) \ 2 2
    粟黍残块Millet fragment \ 20 20
    稻(Oryza sativa L.) \ 4 4
    大豆(Glycine max(L.)Merr.) 1 \ 1
    豇豆属(Vigna savi) 2 \ 2
    禾本科Poaceae 稗(Echinochloa crusgalli (L.)Beauv.) 6 86 92 317
    马唐(Digitaria sanguinalis(L.)Scop.) 13 84 97
    狗尾草(Setaria viridis(L.)Beauv.) 8 36 44
    牛筋草(Eleusine indica(L.)Gaertn.) 28 6 34
    早熟禾(Poa annua L.) 3 28 31
    其他(Others of Poaceae) 14 5 19
    豆科Leguminosae 黄芪(Astragalus L.) 1 8 9 45
    草木樨(Melilotus suaveolens Ledeb.) \ 2 2
    胡枝子(Lespedeza bicolor Turcz.) 1 4 5
    田皂角(Aeschynomene indica L.) \ 2 2
    其他(Others of Leguminosae) 9 18 27
    藜科Chenopodiaceae 藜(Chenopodium album L.) 1004 521 1525 2546
    猪毛菜(Salsola collina Pall.) 471 107 578
    碱蓬(Suaeda glauca Bge.) 28 36 64
    盐地碱蓬(Suaeda salsa(L.)Pall.) 47 224 271
    尖头叶藜(Chenopodium acuminatum Willd) 15 19 34
    杖藜(Chenopodium giganteum D. Don) 38 23 61
    其他(Others of Chenopodiaceae) 12 1 13
    蓼科Polygonaceae 酸模(Rumex acetosa L.) \ 4 4 85
    酸模叶蓼(Polygonum lapathifolium L.) 12 46 58
    萹蓄(Polygonum aviculare L.) 1 1 2
    其他(Others of Polygonaceae) 5 16 21
    菊科Asteraceae 苍耳(Xanthium sibiricum Patrin) \ 1 1 598
    蒿属(Artemisia Linn.) 135 438 573
    其他(Others of Asteraceae) 22 2 24
    泽泻科Alismataceae 泽泻(Alisma plantago-aquatica L.) 5 \ 5 5
    大戟科Euphorbiaceae 铁苋菜(Acalypha australis L.) 25 \ 25 25
    唇形科Labiatae 益母草(Leonurus japonicus Houtt.) \ 1 1 16
    水苏(Stachys japonica Miq.) \ 5 5
    紫苏(Perilla frutescens(L.)Britt.) \ 4 4
    其他(Others of Labiatae) 2 4 6
    莎草科Cyperaceae 莎草(Cyperus rotundus L.) \ 2 2 12
    水莎草(Juncellus serotinus(Rottb.)C. B. Clarke) 3 \ 3
    其他(Others of Cyperaceae) 1 6 7
    旋花科Convolvulaceae 菟丝子(Cuscuta chinensis Lam.) \ 4 4 4
    牻牛儿苗科Geraniaceae 牻牛儿苗(Erodium stephanianum Willd.) \ 2 2 2
    石竹科Caryophyllaceae 繁缕(Stellaria media(L.)Cyr.) 1 \ 1 1
    桑科Moraceae 葎草(Humulus scandens(Lour.)Merr.) 36 \ 36 36
    马鞭草科Verbenaceae 牡荆(Vitex negundo var. cannabifolia(Sieb.et Zucc.)Hand-Mazz.) \ 1 1 1
    苋科Amaranthaceae 1 \ 1 1
    蔷薇科Rosaceae \ 3 3 3
    锦葵科Malvaceae 1 1 2 2
    茨藻科Najadaceae \ 102 102 102
    不可鉴定Unidentifiable 碎果壳 23 20 43 316
    碎种子 88 185 273
    未知 40 169 209 209
    总数 2127 2273 4400
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 4 

    寿光机械林场遗址各区各单位出土炭化遗存数量统计表*

    Table 4. 

    The number of carbonized remains in each section of Jixielinchang site in Shouguang City

    下载: 导出CSV

    表 5 

    寿光机械林场遗址不同遗迹单位炭化种子统计表

    Table 5. 

    Statistics of charred seeds from different units at the Jixielinchang site

    种子数量(粒) 数量百分比 标准密度(粒/L)
    灰坑 2535 57.61% 7.64
    盐灶 1849 42.02% 18.31
    盐井 16 0.36% 2.29
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 6 

    山东地区盐业遗址煮盐季节研究对比表

    Table 6. 

    Comparative table of the salt production seasons at salt production sites in Shandong Province

    遗址或区域名称 时代 研究方法 煮盐季节的相关内容 季节性问题结论
    东营南河崖遗址[43] 西周 文蛤生长线和采集时间 秋季降温时
    东营南河崖遗址[42] 西周 煮盐遗迹有较纯净细沙相隔,结合古文献 季节性遗址,有间歇期,官营前制盐时间在秋末至春季,官营后在冬季 秋春,冬
    寿光双王城遗址,东营南河崖遗址[9] 商周时期 盐灶的朝向,季节风向 春季和/或初秋煮盐 春,初秋
    寿光双王城遗址[29] 商周时期 灶棚进口和烧火工作间的朝向,结合风向和季节性气候特征,遗迹单位仅有临时住所 季节性制盐,春季至夏初制盐,秋末和冬季盐工从居住地返回盐场周围收割薪草 春夏
    渤海湾南岸部分遗址[44] 东周 考古遗迹单位发现包含制盐遗迹、生活堆积和墓葬 不局限于某个季节,秋冬季节,春夏之交都可以 四季皆可
    下载: 导出CSV
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收稿日期:  2022-01-15
修回日期:  2022-08-10
刊出日期:  2023-01-30

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