山西太原盆地龙山文化时期的生业经济——以阳曲县西殿南遗址人和动物骨骼的C、N稳定同位素分析为例

杨柳红, 姬凌飞, 裴静蓉, 邓惠, 张国文, 侯亮亮. 山西太原盆地龙山文化时期的生业经济——以阳曲县西殿南遗址人和动物骨骼的C、N稳定同位素分析为例[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 212-226. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.18
引用本文: 杨柳红, 姬凌飞, 裴静蓉, 邓惠, 张国文, 侯亮亮. 山西太原盆地龙山文化时期的生业经济——以阳曲县西殿南遗址人和动物骨骼的C、N稳定同位素分析为例[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 212-226. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.18
杨柳红, 姬凌飞, 裴静蓉, 邓惠, 张国文, 侯亮亮. 山西太原盆地龙山文化时期的生业经济——以阳曲县西殿南遗址人和动物骨骼的C、N稳定同位素分析为例[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 212-226. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.18 YANG Liuhong, JI Lingfei, PEI Jingrong, DENG Hui, ZHANG Guowen, HOU Liangliang. The subsistence patterns of Taiyuan Basin during the Longshan Culture Period by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analysis of human and animal bones from Xidiannan site, Yangqu County, Shanxi, China[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2023, 43(1): 212-226. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.18
Citation: YANG Liuhong, JI Lingfei, PEI Jingrong, DENG Hui, ZHANG Guowen, HOU Liangliang. The subsistence patterns of Taiyuan Basin during the Longshan Culture Period by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analysis of human and animal bones from Xidiannan site, Yangqu County, Shanxi, China[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2023, 43(1): 212-226. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.18

山西太原盆地龙山文化时期的生业经济——以阳曲县西殿南遗址人和动物骨骼的C、N稳定同位素分析为例

  • 基金项目:

    国家社会科学基金项目(批准号: 19BKG044)和"太原盆地及其毗邻地区公元前3千纪至1千纪生业、社会及环境的多学科研究"项目(批准号: 102020901285)共同资助

详细信息
    作者简介:

    杨柳红, 女, 24岁, 硕士研究生, 科技考古专业, E-mail: 1309838485@qq.com

    通讯作者: 侯亮亮, E-mail: llhou@sxu.edu.cn
  • 中图分类号: K871.13;Q983+.3

The subsistence patterns of Taiyuan Basin during the Longshan Culture Period by carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes analysis of human and animal bones from Xidiannan site, Yangqu County, Shanxi, China

More Information
  • 以山西太原阳曲西殿南遗址(38°03′45″N,112°45′55″E)出土的3例人骨和34例动物骨骼(3例鹿、3例狗、5例牛、6例羊、17例猪)为研究对象,运用AMS-14C测年与C、N稳定同位素分析的研究方法,研究该遗址所处的年代、动物和人的食物结构以及先民对家畜的饲喂方式,进而还原龙山文化时期太原盆地的生业经济。AMS-14C测年结果显示,M1墓主人骨骼的14C年代为4200±30 a B. P.,树轮校正后的年代范围为4844~4620 cal.a B. P.,结合该遗址遗存及其组合群特征初步判断其应为一处龙山文化时期遗址。C、N稳定同位素测试结果显示,鹿(δ13C:-20.8‰ ~-18.7‰,均值-19.6‰ ±1.1‰;δ15N:2.9‰ ~3.6‰,均值3.3‰ ±0.4‰,n=3)主要以C3类食物为生,说明当地野生植被主要为C3类植物;与鹿不同,羊的δ13C值和δ15N值(δ13C:-17.2‰ ~-14.3‰,均值-16.2‰ ±1.0‰;δ15N:6.7‰ ~9.6‰,均值8.1‰ ±1.2‰,n=6)明显高于鹿,其内部存在一些差异性,可分为A、B、C三组:A组羊(YQ17和YQ19)的δ13C值偏高(分别为-16.4‰和-16.3‰),δ15N值(分别为9.3‰和9.6‰)较高,其年龄较小,食物中包含较多的羊奶或生活于缺水的环境中,抑或被投喂了高蛋白的饲料;B组羊(YQ16、YQ18、YQ20)的δ13C值偏低(分别为-16.8‰、-14.3‰和-17.2‰),但δ15N值(分别为8.3‰、7.4‰和7.2‰)偏高,其受到人工干扰的可能性最大,特别是在冬春季节,野外植被较少,羊群很可能无法自行获得充足的食物资源,这时人为投放的饲料(如粟黍的秸秆等)可能作为其食物的补充;C组羊(YQ15)的δ13C值(-16.3‰)和δ15N值(6.7‰)都较低,其食物来源以C3类植物为主,也有少量C4类食物,其数值符合羊作为食草动物的特征,同时反映出当地野生植被主要以C3类植物为主。显然,以野外放养为主的羊,它们的食物结构仍然受到粟黍农业的强烈影响。大部分牛(δ13C:-20.2‰ ~-14.6%,均值-16.4‰ ±2.6‰;δ15N:3.5‰ ~6.8‰,均值5.3‰ ±1.6‰,n=4)的食物主要以C3类植物为主,但也添加了少量的C4类食物;家猪(δ13C:-7.5‰ ~-6.3‰,均值-6.9‰ ±0.3‰;δ15N:6.1‰ ~8.4‰,均值7.5‰ ±0.6‰,n=17)、家犬(δ13C:-7.3‰ ~-6.8‰,均值-7.0‰ ±0.3‰;δ15N:6.6‰ ~7.9‰,均值7.1‰ ±0.7‰,n=3)及牛YQ13(δ13C:-10.7‰;δ15N:8.7‰)主要以C4类食物为生。其中,猪和狗则主要以粟黍及其副产品为生,并食用了较多先民食物残余和/或残羹冷炙,甚至先民的粪便等;牛YQ13可能受到先民的特殊饲喂,其食物中添加了大量的粟黍及其副产品。先民(δ13C:-8.6‰ ~-7.1‰,均值-7.7‰ ±0.8‰,δ15N:9.5‰ ~10.3‰,均值10.0‰ ±0.4‰,n=3)主要以C4类食物为生,即粟黍及其副产品饲喂的家猪和家犬。因此,西殿南遗址所在太原盆地龙山文化时期先民的生业经济以粟黍农业及家猪饲喂业为主,也对外来的牛和羊进行放养和饲喂;与处于同时期且邻近的中原腹地新砦遗址、临汾盆地的陶寺遗址和清凉寺墓地、忻定盆地的辛章遗址以及陕北地区的神圪垯梁遗址已发表的人和动物骨骼的C、N稳定同位素相关数据进行单因素方差分析发现,西殿南遗址所在太原盆地的生业经济相比略显单一,社会复杂化程度有限。

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  • 图 1 

    西殿南遗址及文中涉及遗址的位置和不同区域开展植物考古的遗址位置示意图

    Figure 1. 

    Xidiannan site and sites mentioned in this paper and sites of phytoarchaeology in different areas

    图 2 

    西殿南遗址骨样的δ13C和δ15N散点图

    Figure 2. 

    Scatter plot of δ13C and δ15N of bones from the Xidiannan site. As the isotopic data of sample pig YQ32 and dog YQ7 are exactly the same, they are represented as "Δ" in the scatter plot, so the value of the dog sample is only shown as 2 points

    图 3 

    西殿南遗址骨样的δ13C和δ15N误差棒状图

    Figure 3. 

    Error bar chart of δ13C and δ15N error of bone samples from the Xindiannan site

    图 4 

    西殿南及其周边同时期遗址先民的δ13C和δ15N散点图和误差棒状图

    Figure 4. 

    Scatter plot and error bar chart of δ13C and δ15N of human bones from the Xidiannan and its surrounding sites

    图 5 

    西殿南及其周边遗址牛的δ13C和δ15N散点图和误差棒状图

    Figure 5. 

    Scatter plot and error bar chart of δ13C and δ15N of cattle bones from the Xidiannan and its surrounding sites

    图 6 

    西殿南及其周边遗址羊的δ13C和δ15N散点图和误差棒状图

    Figure 6. 

    Scatter plot and error bar chart of δ13C and δ15N of sheep bones from the Xidiannan and its surrounding sites. As the mean point of the sheep error bar chart in the Xinzhang site coincides with the scatter point of a sheep in the Shengedaliang site, which is expressed as "" in this figure

    表 1 

    人骨的AMS-14C测年数据

    Table 1. 

    AMS-14C dating data of human bone

    实验室编号 样品编号及单位 样品类型 14C年代
    (a B. P.)
    校正后的年代
    (95.4%置信度)
    (cal.a B. P.)
    Beta-582956 YQM1 人股骨 4200±30 4764~4620
    4844~4792
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2 

    西殿南人和动物骨的背景信息与测试结果

    Table 2. 

    Archaeological context and analysis results of human and animal bones from the Xidiannan site

    实验室编号 样品编号 出土单位 种属 取样部位 骨胶原产率(%) C(%) N(%) C/N δ13C(‰) δ15N(‰)
    NKU365 YQ1 TYXDNT0109H5 左侧肱骨 16.7 41.4 15.0 3.2 -7.4 10.2
    NKU387 YQ2 TYXDNT0108②(2) 颅骨 14.4 40.3 14.6 3.2 -7.1 10.3
    NKU389 YQ3 TYXDNT0310M1(2) 右侧股骨 4.3 40.8 13.7 3.5 -8.6 9.5
    NKU366 YQ4 TYXDNT0410②F2 鹿 右侧肱骨 11.4 42.0 15.1 3.2 -19.3 3.6
    NKU543 YQ5 YQXDNT0109H5 鹿 4.3 24.2 8.8 3.2 -18.7 2.9
    NKU554 YQ6 YQXDNT0510②F1 鹿 右股骨 13.5 42.0 15.3 3.2 -20.8 3.3
    NKU367 YQ7 TYXDNT0510②F1 左侧股骨 15.7 40.6 14.5 3.3 -6.8 6.7
    NKU541 YQ8 YQXDNT0109① 左下颌 11.4 38.7 14.0 3.2 -7.3 6.6
    NKU550 YQ9 YQXDNT0411H2 枢椎 7.8 41.0 14.6 3.3 -6.9 7.9
    NKU378 YQ10 TYXDNT0109H5 右股骨 7.1 41.4 14.9 3.2 -14.6 6.4
    NKU379 YQ11 TYXDNT0108① 右跟骨 4.6 37.4 13.1 3.3 -15.8 4.5
    NKU542 YQ12 YQXDNT0110① 右胫骨 13.8 42.2 15.3 3.2 -15.0 6.8
    NKU380 YQ13 TYXDNT0108② 右肱骨 8.9 39.6 14.4 3.2 -10.7 8.7
    NKU381 YQ14 TYXDNT0412② 左胫骨 14.4 41.8 15.1 3.2 -20.2 3.5
    NKU382 YQ15 TYXDNT0412② 右下颌骨 16.0 42.9 15.6 3.2 -16.3 6.7
    NKU383 YQ16 TYXDNT0410②F2 左肱骨 15.1 41.5 14.8 3.3 -16.8 8.3
    NKU384 YQ17 TYXDNT0310② 右下颌骨 11.3 41.7 15.2 3.2 -16.4 9.6
    NKU385 YQ18 TYXDNT0213① 右肱骨 19.5 41.4 14.9 3.2 -14.3 7.4
    NKU551 YQ19 YQXDNT0412H1 左肱骨 13.2 40.7 14.6 3.3 -16.3 9.3
    NKU546 YQ20 YQXDNT0310② 股骨 8.3 43.0 15.6 3.2 -17.2 7.2
    NKU368 YQ21 TYXDNT0310F2 右侧盆骨 8.2 41.6 15.1 3.2 -6.9 8.1
    NKU369 YQ22 TYXDNT0310② 头骨 7.5 41.0 15.0 3.2 -6.3 8.4
    NKU370 YQ23 TYXDNT0109H5 上颌骨 2.3 30.8 10.7 3.3 -7.2 7.5
    NKU371 YQ24 TYXDNT0410H8 & H9 左下颌骨 9.9 41.2 14.8 3.2 -6.3 7.8
    NKU372 YQ25 TYXDNT0310② 右尺骨 9.4 40.4 14.3 3.3 -7.2 7.1
    NKU373 YQ26 TYXDNT0108② 右下颌骨 7.8 40.7 14.5 3.3 -7.3 8.3
    NKU374 YQ27 TYXDNT0113① 颅骨 7.4 41.0 15.0 3.2 -7.2 7.6
    NKU376 YQ28 TYXDNT0211② 右下颌骨 4.7 38.5 13.7 3.3 -7.0 7.3
    NKU390 YQ29 TYXDNT0310F2 左盆骨 4.4 39.7 14.4 3.2 -6.8 6.1
    NKU544 YQ30 YQXDNT0111① 左盆骨 7.2 41.6 15.0 3.2 -7.0 7.0
    NKU545 YQ31 YQXDNT0210② 右下颌骨 1.7 38.0 13.6 3.3 -6.8 8.0
    NKU547 YQ32 YQXDNT0310H12 左肩胛 11.0 40.3 14.6 3.2 -6.8 6.7
    NKU548 YQ33 YQXDNT0410② 上颌骨 11.1 41.6 14.9 3.3 -6.5 8.1
    NKU549 YQ34 YQXDNT0410②F2 右下颌骨 8.0 40.2 14.6 3.2 -6.8 7.7
    NKU552 YQ35 YQXDNT0510② 右肩胛 10.3 42.0 15.3 3.2 -7.2 7.5
    NKU553 YQ36 YQXDNT0510②F1 左肩胛 14.5 42.0 15.2 3.2 -7.1 6.9
    NKU555 YQ37 YQXDNT0510②F1 左上颌骨 10.3 42.0 15.0 3.3 -7.5 7.9
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3 

    西殿南及其周边遗址人的C、N稳定同位素数据

    Table 3. 

    C and N stable isotope data of humans from the Xidiannan and its surrounding sites

    遗址 δ13C均值(‰) δ15N均值(‰) 参考文献
    陶寺 -6.6±1.0(n=7) 8.9±1.3(n=7) [18]
    神圪垯墚 -8.5±1.8(n=28) 8.8±1.4(n=28) [76]
    新砦 -9.6±1.5(n=8) 9.0±1.0(n=8) [77]
    辛章 -6.7±0.3(n=8) 8.9±0.4(n=8) [14]
    清凉寺 -7.9±0.6(n=14) 8.8±1.0(n=14) [19]
    西殿南 -7.7±0.8(n=3) 10.0±0.4(n=3) 本研究
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 4 

    西殿南及其周边遗址牛、羊的C、N稳定同位素数据

    Table 4. 

    C and N stable isotope data of cattle and sheep from the Xidiannan and its surrounding sites

    遗址 种属 δ13C均值(‰) δ15N均值(‰) 参考文献
    陶寺 -11.3±2.2(n=6) 6.6±1.2(n=6) [17]
    -17.2±0.4(n=5) 6.8±1.0(n=5)
    神圪垯墚 -14.7±1.4(n=6) 6.5±0.5(n=6) [76]
    -16.0±0.9(n=11) 6.3±1.2(n=11)
    新砦 -9.8±1.7(n=11) 6.3±0.9(n=11) [57, 78]
    -14.4±1.6(n=8) 5.6±0.5(n=8)
    辛章 -12.7±1.4(n=5) 6.8±1.2(n=5) [14]
    -14.8±1.7(n=13) 7.0±1.3(n=13)
    西殿南 -15.3±3.4(n=5) 6.0±2.0(n=5) 本研究
    -16.2±1.0(n=6) 8.1±1.2(n=6)
    下载: 导出CSV
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出版历程
收稿日期:  2022-03-17
修回日期:  2022-07-17
刊出日期:  2023-01-30

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