小珠山文化发展的气候环境背景初探

张威, 马瑞丰, 刘亮, 张裕, 高云军, 柴乐. 小珠山文化发展的气候环境背景初探[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 200-211. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.17
引用本文: 张威, 马瑞丰, 刘亮, 张裕, 高云军, 柴乐. 小珠山文化发展的气候环境背景初探[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 200-211. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.17
张威, 马瑞丰, 刘亮, 张裕, 高云军, 柴乐. 小珠山文化发展的气候环境背景初探[J]. 第四纪研究, 2023, 43(1): 200-211. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.17 ZHANG Weil, MA Ruifeng, LIU Liang, ZHANG Yu, GAO Yunjun, CHAI Le. Study on the climatic and environmental background of the Xiaozhushan culture in Liaodong Peninsula[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2023, 43(1): 200-211. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.17
Citation: ZHANG Weil, MA Ruifeng, LIU Liang, ZHANG Yu, GAO Yunjun, CHAI Le. Study on the climatic and environmental background of the Xiaozhushan culture in Liaodong Peninsula[J]. Quaternary Sciences, 2023, 43(1): 200-211. doi: 10.11928/j.issn.1001-7410.2023.01.17

小珠山文化发展的气候环境背景初探

  • 基金项目:

    辽宁省社会科学规划基金重点项目(批准号: L20AKG001)和辽宁省特聘教授项目"辽东半岛黄土记录的风沙活动与海平面之间的关系"(批准号: 60618006)共同资助

详细信息
    作者简介:

    张威, 男, 52岁, 教授, 全球气候变化研究, E-mail: zhangweilnu@163.com

  • 中图分类号: K871.13;P532

Study on the climatic and environmental background of the Xiaozhushan culture in Liaodong Peninsula

  • 气候环境对古文化的发展影响深远, 是环境考古研究的重要内容。小珠山文化是辽东半岛新石器时期以来最重要的一支考古文化, 其发展过程与全新世气候环境的关系并不明晰。为了研究小珠山文化发展的气候环境背景, 本项研究分析了以辽东半岛为主的全新世气候变化过程, 结合主要遗址的考古记录, 探讨气候环境变化对小珠山文化的发源、发展、衰落过程、文化交流、遗址分布、生业模式方面的影响。研究表明: 全新世气候环境变化对小珠山文化发展的不同阶段具有显著影响。早全新世8.2ka B.P.冷事件可能促进了兴隆洼文化的南下, 是小珠山文化发源的有利条件; 中全新世早期, 温暖湿润的气候为小珠山文化发展提供了先决条件; 中全新世晚期, 不稳定的气候条件促进了小珠山文化第三期的文化交流以及农业发展, 4.2ka B.P.气候事件则可能是导致小珠山文化走向衰落的重要气候因素。小珠山文化遗址分布呈现出由海岛到陆地的特点, 气候变化引起的海岸线和可利用资源等变化是导致小珠山遗址分布变化的重要因子, 同时对文化交流和生业模式的改变也起到了重要作用。该研究对揭示长时间尺度下古文化发展对气候变化的应对策略与规律提供参考。

  • 加载中
  • 图 1 

    小珠山文化遗址分布图

    Figure 1. 

    The spatial distribution of sites of Xiaozhushan culture

    图 2 

    小珠山文化分期与气候曲线对照图

    Figure 2. 

    Cultural stages and climate curves of the Xiaozhushan Culture. (a)Relative sea level curve in the southern Liaoning[40]; (b)Broadleaf pollen content in the southern Liaoning[40]; (c)Stalagmite SB10 δ18O curve in Sanbao cave[41]; (d)Annual average temperature in the southern Liaoning[40]; (e)Synthetically reconstructed Holocene temperature change in North China[42]; (f)Periods of Xiaozhushan Culture

    图 3 

    小珠山文化交流与古海岸线(海岸线修改自文献[31, 56])

    Figure 3. 

    The cultural exchange of Xiaozhushan Culture and the ancient coastline(coastline modified by references[31, 56])

    表 1 

    小珠山文化不同分期年代表[16]

    Table 1. 

    The dates of different stages of Xiaozhushan culture[16]

    期次 序号 实验室编号 原编号 材料 测定年代
    (a B.P.)
    校正年代
    (cal.aB.P.)
    中值年代
    (cal.aB.P.)
    第一期 1 ZK-3276 T1612⑧C 木炭 5532±42 6277~6402 6335
    2 ZK-3277 T1612⑨C 木炭 5398±40 6171~6288 6205
    3 ZK-3278 T1612⑩C 木炭 5693±47 6393~6630 6477
    4 ZK-3279 T1612H8 木炭 5678±36 6392~6561 6457
    5 ZK-4033 F16① 鹿 5646±34 6388~6495 6426
    6 ZK-4034 F16② 梅花鹿 5647±31 6390~6493 6427
    7 ZK-4035 F16③ 梅花鹿 5632±31 6310~6454 6397
    8 ZK-3672 T1713 鹿? 5700±40 6398~6569 6483
    9 ZK-3674 T1713 中型梅花鹿 5635±25 6390~6486 6415
    10 ZK-3675 F14④ 鹿? 5675±25 6397~6502 6452
    11 ZK-3676 F14④ 鹿? 5635±30 6388~6488 6413
    12 ZK-4031 T1613 小型鹿 5815±32 6307~6451 6379
    13 ZK-3682 T1513 鹿(左肱骨) 5770±30 6491~6656 6573
    14 ZK-3683 T1513 鹿 5790±30 6498~6663 6592
    15 ZK-3684 T1513 鹿 5745±30 6450~6634 6542
    第二期 16 ZK-3671 T1713 鹿? 4510±30 5048~5201 5160
    17 ZK-4029 T1713 小型鹿(獐) 5780±38 6485~6671 6582
    18 ZK-4030 T1713 梅花鹿 5799±33 6494~6673 6601
    19 ZK-3681 T1513 小型鹿科 5610±30 6305~6449 6370
    第三期 20 ZK-3670 T1713⑤ 鹿? 4635±25 5375~5461 5414
    21 ZK-3679 T1513⑰ 鹿(右根骨) 5595±30 6303~6409 6360
    22 ZK-3680 T1513⑱ 小型鹿科 5600±35 6301~6446 6365
    23 ZK-4023 T1413 4404±29 4863~5052 4969
    24 ZK-4024 T1413 梅花鹿 5664±38 6390~6505 6443
    25 ZK-4025 T1413⑬ 5574±37 6294~6407 6354
    26 ZK-4027 T1413⑪ 小型鹿 3967±29 4387~4453 4439
    27 ZK-4028 T1413⑩ 不明 4621±36 5340~5465 5404
    第四期 28 ZK-4021 T1412⑥ 不明 3965±28 4385~4452 4437
    29 ZK-4022 T1412④ 不明 3898±29 4243~4415 4336
    第五期 30 ZK-3668 T1713③A 小型鹿 3835±30 4148~4305 4237
    31 ZK-3677 T1513⑤A 鹿? 3765±25 4081~4185 4126
    32 ZK-4037 F9① 小型鹿 4058±29 4422~4619 4533
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 2 

    辽东半岛地区剖面孢粉信息

    Table 2. 

    Comparison of pollen data from profiles in Liaodong Peninsula

    大沟北剖面[20] 朱家屯剖面[20, 22] 大莲泡剖面[21] 普兰店泥炭[20, 22] Ck9钻孔泥炭[20]
    位置 英那河河口 金州东,金石滩以北海岸带 金州大莲泡村 普兰店泡子盆地 大凌河口东
    深度 2.15m 2.0m 3.0m 5.8m 55.0m
    年代 学者依据岩性判断 4949±73~5689±75aB.P.(中部泥炭) 8070±190aB.P.、
    9950±300aB.P.(2.0m、2.6m处)
    3370±80aB.P.
    (25.3~30.3m处)
    晚全新世 草本减少,木本恺木属增多,阔叶树种及松属花粉减少 草本植物篙属居优势,禾本科、莎草科、狐尾藻属及香蒲科(Typhaceae)等减少 草本及水生植物减少至消失,中华卷柏(Selaginella sinensis(Desv.)Spring)增加 松属为主,还有栎属和桦属等。草本植物以耐干旱的黎科增加,喜水的莎草科、香蒲科等减少为主
    中全新世 旱生草本植物黎科和篙属。木本植物松属、栋属占优势 栎属、桦属、榛属(Corylus)优势,禾本科、香蒲科、莎草科及狐尾藻属等明显增加,水龙骨科(Polypodiaceae)和环纹藻属(Concentricystes)居多 水生植物含量较高,香蒲科、狐尾藻属及莲属(Nelumbo)花粉增加,木本松属、栎属平分秋色
    早全新世 含莎草科(Cyperaceae)的苔草属(Carex)和禾本科(Poceae)的芦苇属,木本植物以恺木属、栎属为主 以篙属、禾本科、狐尾藻属等为主;木本花粉次之,以栎属和松属居多 孢粉贫乏,仅见几科松花粉,草本植物为蒿属,水生植物有香蒲科、狐尾藻属及双星藻科(Zygnemataeeae) 桦属占优势,榆属多于栎属,外侧滨海地带,发育以篙属和黎科为主的旱生、盐生草本群落
    “-”表示未找到相关资料
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 3 

    气候恶化事件下的应对策略及考古学证据[36]

    Table 3. 

    Different strategies under climatic deterioration and their archaeological evidence[36]

    气候恶化条件下的应对策略 考古学证据
    1. 增加流动性 遗址稀缺;缺乏固定居住场所;文化形式单一;工具简单
    2. 加强对周边资源丰富区域的开发力度 使用用于密集资源采集的高级工具;有向周边空间占用加剧的痕迹;动物和植物证据显示了对资源的加剧利用
    3. 进行长途迁徙 具有文化传播的证据,与遗址数量的急剧下降形成对比的是另一个地区的遗址数量急剧增加
    4. 结盟与交流 有外来商品的存在,相互的文化影响;文化标志显示了互惠关系的存在
    下载: 导出CSV

    表 4 

    小珠山文化不同阶段生业情况

    Table 4. 

    The economic situation of different stages of Xiaozhushan Culture

    项目 第一期 第二期 第三期 第四期 第五期
    主要生业[9] 渔猎 渔猎 渔猎 渔猎 渔猎
    补充生业[9] 农业 农业 农业 农业 农业
    农业程度[59~60] 原始 原始 发展 发展 发达
    作物[59~60] 粟、黍 粟、黍、小麦和水稻
    农具比例(%)[61] 1.5 1.5 27.6 20.7 50.2
    渔业方式[8, 59] 滩涂采集贝类 射鱼和网鱼 射鱼、叉鱼、网鱼和钓鱼 射鱼、叉鱼、网鱼和钓鱼 射鱼、叉鱼、网鱼和钓鱼
    捕猎种类[8, 59] 鹿、獐、马鹿等 斑鹿、马鹿、麂子、麝等 鹿、獐等 鹿、獐等 鹿、獐等
    畜牧业[8, 56] 狗、猪 狗、猪 狗、猪 狗、猪 狗、猪
    玉器用途[63] 石器、配饰 石器、配饰 随葬祭祀 随葬祭祀 随葬祭祀
    陶器特点[9] 手制夹砂红褐陶含滑石 手制夹砂灰褐陶含滑石 轮制夹细沙/砂红褐陶、彩陶 轮制夹砂褐陶含云母 轮制夹砂红褐陶、夹砂黑褐陶、夹砂黑陶
    “-”表示未找到相关资料
    下载: 导出CSV
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收稿日期:  2022-02-23
修回日期:  2022-09-26
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